The gender gap in firm productivity in Rwanda: Evidence from establishment and household enterprise data.

Munyegera, Ggombe Kasim, and Akampumuza Precious, 2018″ The Gender Gap In Firm Productivity In Rwanda: Evidence From Establishment And Household Enterprise Data,” WIDER Working Paper 2018/100 Helsinki: UNU-WIDER, 2018.


Rwanda is one of the countries with the best strategies for women empowerment and gender equality in Africa and globally. Nonetheless, some inequalities exist especially in education attainment. This study investigates the gender gaps in business performance using nationally representative household survey and establishment census data. Ordinary Least Squares results indicate that female-owned business enterprises employ fewer workers and are less productive than male-owned counterparts.