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Bridging the gap: decomposing sources of gender yield gaps in Uganda groundnut production

Johnny Mugisha, Christopher Sebatta, Kai Mausch, Elizabeth Ahikiriza, David Kalule Okello & Esther M. Njuguna (2019) Bridging the gap: Decomposing sources of gender yield gaps in Uganda groundnut production, Gender, Technology and Development, 23:1, 19-35.

Abstract

Female plot managers in Sub-Saharan Africa often realize significantly lower crop yields than their male counterparts. Even for legumes, which are often referred to as ‘women’s crops’, yields are significantly lower. This study investigated the underlying causes of this gender yield gap in groundnut production. The analysis is based on survey data from 228 farm households from two groundnut growing regions in Uganda. We used the Blinder-Oaxaca model to decompose factors that contribute to this yield gap. Results show 63% and 44% gender yield gaps for improved and local varieties, respectively, with female plot managers realizing less than their male counterparts. Improved groundnut seeds increase female plot manager’s yields but not the yields of male plot managers. Male advantage and female disadvantage combined account for more than 70% of the yield gap in both improved and local groundnut variety production and exceed pure productivity differences. Labor use differences between female and male plot managers and variety types explain the observed yield gap. Interventions and policies that increase women’s access to productive inputs including improved seed will significantly contribute to closing the yield gap, and thereby increase crop production, food security, as well as women’s incomes.

Returns to microcredit, cash grants and training for male and female micro entrepreneurs in Uganda

Nathan Fiala. Returns to microcredit, cash grants and training for male and female micro entrepreneurs in Uganda ,World Development, Volume 105, 2018,Pages 189-200.

Abstract

Experimental tests of microfinance programs have found little or no impacts on business and household income outcomes. I present experimental evidence that the gender of the individual receiving a loan matters for the impacts measured. Microenterprise owners were randomly offered either capital with repayment (discounted loans) or without (grants) and were randomly chosen to receive business skills training in conjunction with the capital. I find no short-run effects for female-owned enterprises from either form of capital or the training. However, I find large effects on profits and sales for male-owned enterprises that were offered loans. There is no effect for men from the grants, suggesting repayment requirements increased the likelihood of productive investment. The results indicate that cash-constrained men—a sample that is not traditionally targeted by microcredit organizations—can benefit from subsidized micro-finance.

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